In the Service of our Ancestors and African Love,
Listen Seeker, I come in peace,
“For the last ten years I have given my time to the study of the condition of the Negro, here, there, and everywhere, and I have come to realize that he is still the object of degradation and pity the world over, in the sense that he has no status socially, nationally, or commercially (with a modicum of exception in the United States of America) . . ..” — Marcus Garvey (1915)
Tomorrow is the birthday of Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. (August 17, 1887 – June 10, 1940), who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL) on July 20th, 1914 (Martin, Tony. “Race First” (1976) First Majority Press edition, 1986: p. 6). “By 1921 Garvey was unquestionably the leader of the largest organization of its type in the history of the race” (Ibid. p 13). At 859 branches worldwide in 1921 and six-million members in 1923, a century from the UNIA-ACL’s founding we had no comparable organization.
Marcus Garvey had two consecutive wives. Amy Ashwood Garvey (January 10, 1897 – May 11, 1969) and Amy Jacques Garvey (December 31, 1895 – July 25, 1973). He had known Amy Ashwood Garvey, a co-founder of the UNIA-ACL, back in Jamaica from High School, when in 1916 she left for Panama and reunited with Garvey in 1918. They married on Christmas Day 1919 but parted in early 1920 “amid a welter of accusations and counteraccusations concerning infedility, financial misdealings and political strategies.” (Ibid. p. 12) He married Amy Jacques Garvey in 1922. She was his private secretary and as the list below reveals, she has spent her lifetime committed to Marcus Garvey and his memory.
The Garveys’ contributions should not be understated. Tony Martin (February 21, 1942 – January 17, 2013) for his part continued Amy Jacques Garvey’s effort to keep Marcus Garvey remembered. While all four have passed on, at least I can pronounce my gratefulness. Red, Black and Green. Forthwith are the
Publications of the Garveys
As written in Race First (1986)
By Tony Martin
Articles, Pamphlets and Books
Garvey, Amy Jacques. “Africans at Home and Abroad.” The African 3 (October 1945): 14.
___. “An Appeal for African Names and their Meanings.” The African 5 (October-November 1947): 13.
___. “Be Prepared.” The African 4 (May 1946): 12, 13, 22.
___. Black Power in America. Kingston: A. J. Garvey, 1968.
___. “Bread Plus Butter–A World Battle.” The African 4 (August 1946): 11.
___. Garvey and Garveyism. Kingston: A. J. Garvey, 1963. Reprint. New York, Collier Books, 1970.
___. “Garvey and Panafricanism.” Black World 21 (December 1971): 15-18.
___. “Is Yours a Home?” The African 3 (April 1945): 10.
___. “Man’s Disposition Causing Self-Destruction.” The African 5 (June-July 1947): 11, 14.
___. Memorandum Correlative of Africa, West Indies and the Americas, Sent to the Representation of the United Nations. Jamaica, 1944.
___. Messages to the Seminar on the Realities of Black Power. London: West Indian Students’ Union, 1968.
___. “Mrs. Amy Jacques Speaks at Liberty Hall on Garvey’s Day.” National Negro Voice (September 6, 1941): 6
___. “Political Activities of Marcus Garvey in Jamaica,” Jamaica Journal 6 (June 1972): 2-4.
___. “A Resurrected Art.” The African 5 (September 1947): 13.
___. “Salute to Youth.” The African 3 (July-August 1945): 7.
___. United States of America vs. Marcus Garvey–WAS JUSTICE DEFEATED? New York: A. J. Garvey, 1925.
___. “What Are You Living For?” The African 4 (September 1946): 11, 18.
___. “What’s Wrong with Our World?” The African 5 (January 1947): 18, 19.
___. “Where are my Children?” The African 4 (June 1946): 11, 20.
___. ed. Philosophies and Opinions of Marcus Garvey or Africa for the Africans.. 1923, 1925. Reprint. London: Frank Cass, 1967.
*Garvey, Marcus. Aims and Objectives of Movement for Solution of Negro Problem Outlined. New York: Press of the UNIA, 1924.
___. An Answer to His Many Critics, UNIA Press Release, January 1923
___. An Appeal to the Soul of White America. New York: Press of the UNIA, 1924.
___. “The British West Indies in the Mirror of Civilization.” Africa Times and Orient Review (October 1913): 158-160.
___. Conspiracy of the East St. Louis Riots. New York: UNIA, 1917.
___. Eight Uncle Tom Negroes and W. E. Burghardt Du Bois As A Hater of Dark People. New York: Press of the UNIA, 1923.
___. Grand Speech of Hon. Marcus Garvey at Kingsway Hall, London, Denouncing the Moving Picture Propaganda to Discredit the Negro. London: Black Man Pub. Co. [1939?].
___. Minutes of Proceedings of the Speech by the Hon. Marcus Garvey at the Century Theatre. London: Vail and Co., 1928.
___. “The Negro’s Greatest Enemy.” In Three Articles on the Negro Problem. New York: Press of the UNIA, 1924.
___. Renewal of Petition of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities’ League to the League of Nations. London: Vail and Co., 1928.
___. Selections from the Poetic Meditations of Marcus Garvey. New York: A. J. Garvey, 1927
___. Speech Delivered by Marcus Garvey at Royal Albert Hall on Wednesday Evening, June 6th, 1928, In Setting Forth “The Case of the Negro for International Racial Adjustment, Before the English People.” 1928. Reprint. London: Poets and Painters Press [1968?].
___. Speech of Hon. Marcus Garvey Delivered at 71st Regiment Armory. New York, 1922.
___. A Talk with Afro-West Indians–The Negro Race and its Problems. [Kingston?]: African Communities League [1915?].
___. The Tragedy of White Injustice. New York: A. J. Garvey, 1927.
___. Universal Negro Improvement Association Convention Hymns. [Kingston], 1934.
___. “The West Indies in the Mirror of Truth.” Champion Magazine 1 (January 1917): 267, 268.
*In publications up to 1917, and on at least one occasion thereafter, Garvey’s articles bear the name Marcus Garvey, Jr. (or Jnr. or Junr.). The Jr. is omitted here.
Garvey, Amy Ashwood. “Up You Mighty Race.” N.p., n.d.
Garvey, Marcus. “Speech by Hon. Marcus Garvey On His Return to United States” (208-A) and “Explanation of the Objects of the Universal Negro Improvement Association” (208-B). The L. H. Bourne Recording Co., See Be Record, “Made Exclusively for the UNIA.” [New York, 1921].
___. “Hon. Marcus Garvey on His Return to the U.S.A.” (LHR 701-A) and “Explanation of the Objects of the Universal Negro Improvement Association” (LHR 701-B), London House Records, Newark, “Made Exclusively for Vanguard Local UNIA-ACL.” [ca. 1960s].
Extant Newspapers and Magazines Published by Marcus Garvey
Black Man (magazine).
Daily Negro Times.