In the Service of our Ancestors and African Love,
Listen Seeker, I come in peace,
“Each truth you learn will be, for you, as new as if it had never been written.” — African Proverb
The truth is out there. It is often written. It’s upon us to research the writings of our past. There was a time when Africans ruled and Kings and Queens ruled. The time passed. Interracial Warfare took that time away from us.
In order for us to return to our state of rule, we must empower ourselves. We must empower our Race, empower our African Nations, empower our Fellowships and empower our Families. This is what History teaches us. African Queens ruled when African Kings ruled. African Empowerment is the key to our return to the peak. Please Organize our Power with us.
Remembering a time when African Queens ruled
by Robin Walker
Ancient Egypt is the most controversial part of Black History. Most historians continue to place Egypt alongside the civilisations of the Middle East to the virtual exclusion of its African origin. The key fact here is that the modern Arab nation of Egypt was born in 639 AD when the Arabians invaded and occupied Egypt (and the rest of North Africa) for the very first time. Ancient Egypt is what the Africans built before the Arabians got there.
What follows here is a history of some of that ancient African achievement.
Ancient Egypt was the first major civilisation in Africa for which records are abundant. Its second ruler was Queen Neith-Hotep (c.5581 BC). The single most powerful person in the world at the time, she ruled as Queen-Regent for the young Pharaoh Djer until he became of age to accept full political authority.
Pharaoh Mer-Neith (5524-c.5507 BC) succeeded Djer on the throne. She, however, ruled as Egypt’s first female pharaoh. Her name means `beloved of Neith’, named after a goddess that the Greeks would, at a much later date, call Athena. She had two great tombs built, one in the southern Egyptian city of Abydos and the other in the northern city of Saqqara. Tradition dictated that these monuments be built to symbolise the authority of the pharaoh as ruler over the north and south. Her monuments, especially the Saqqara tomb, are as large and impressive as those of the male pharaohs. She could thus be called history’s first feminist.
Neith-Hotep and Mer-Neith belonged to the First Egyptian Dynasty. From Dynasty One to the end of Dynasty Six (5660-4188 BC) was the Old Kingdom – Egypt’s first golden age. This was the era when the Sphinx of Giza was built, the Great Pyramids were erected, and the first substantial literature in the world appeared.
Two great females appeared during the Sixth Dynasty. Iput (c.4355 BC) ruled Egypt as Queen-Regent for Pharaoh Pepi I until he became of age. Pharaoh Nitocris was the last ruler of the dynasty (4200-4188 BC). The Old Kingdom collapsed after her rule. Egypt went into a lengthy period of decline called the First Intermediate Period (4188-3448 BC).
Kush, the land to the south of Egypt (i.e. Sudan), became a great and powerful kingdom during Egypt’s decline.
Egypt entered its second golden age with the birth of the Middle Kingdom in 3448 BC. Outside of the Nile Valley, states appeared for the first time in Asia. Of these, Sumer (located in modern Iraq) emerged first around 3300 BC. It was quickly followed by Elam (located in modern Iran), Akkad (in Iraq and Syria), and then the Indus Valley Civilisation (in western India and Pakistan). With the controversial exception of Crete, there were no other known civilisations on the planet at this date. Some British historians, however, claim that Stonehenge and various structures built in Ireland and Scotland deserve consideration as evidence of early civilisation in Europe.
Returning to Egypt, the last pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty was Sebekneferura. She ruled Egypt for 3 years and 10 months (3186-3182 BC). After her reign the Middle Kingdom collapsed followed by anarchy – the Second Intermediate Period. During this lengthy and disastrous age (3182-1709 BC), non-African invaders from Asia ruled Egypt. They were the first Caucasians known to have ruled any part of African territory.
Kush, to the south, again flourished during this period.
During the reign of the last foreign ruler, King Ipepi (1770-1709 BC), the Egyptians rebelled. Queen Ahhotep saved Egypt during these wars of liberation. She rallied the Egyptian troops and crushed a rebellion in Southern Egypt. For her part in the liberation struggle, she received Egypt’s highest military decoration at least three times – the Order of the Fly. After ruling as Queen-Regent,Kamose, her son, succeeded her. He maintained the military pressure on the foreigners until they were finally evicted from Egypt.
The New Kingdom period lasted from Dynasty Eighteen to Dynasty Twenty (1709-1095 BC). Queen Ahmose-Nefertari, the co-founder of the Eighteenth Dynasty, did much to help reconstruct the country. Holding the positions of Second Prophet of Amen and also Divine Wife, she performed various civil and religious duties. She maintained a college of priestesses, controlled the divine offerings to the deity Amen, was in charge of the workers of the temple fields and also controlled a number of dignitaries. She later ruled the country as Queen-Regent for Amenhotep I, her son. Some building projects date back to her time such as the reconstruction of the Deir-el-Medina necropolis. Of this great woman, Sir Flinders Petrie, master of the British archaeologists, wrote that she was “the most venerated figure of Egyptian history.”
Hatshepsut was the next great woman of the dynasty. In September 1650 BC Thutmose I, her father, elevated her to the position of co-regent. Following this in 1628 BC she became the Great Royal Wife of Thutmose II. In 1615 BC she ruled as Queen-Regent for Thutmose III but later deposed him. She proclaimed herself pharaoh in his place and took the religious titles the “female Horus” and the “daughter of Ra”. At Karnak she erected two giant obelisks that rose to almost 100 feet. In Deir-el-Bahri, she built an astonishing temple that was cut out of the rock from which it stood!
In around 1530 BC Queen Tiye became the last great woman of the dynasty, as illness made her husband and pharaoh more and more dependent on her. Tiye built alliances by arranging diplomatic marriages. She also bought off Asian peoples through the gift giving of gold. In return, the Asians sold lapis lazuli and cedar wood. A period of much prosperity and stability, this allowed for the construction of great monuments at Karnak and Luxor.
The Nineteenth Dynasty was also a great period. Tawosret (1243-1236 BC) was the last pharaoh of the dynasty. Again, she ascended the throne as the most powerful individual in the world.
After the Twentieth Dynasty Egypt fell apart for a third time. Central authority in Egypt disappeared and eventually the Kushites (i.e. Sudanese) seized control over all Egypt. They founded the Twenty Fifth Dynasty (785-664 BC) and installed their female relatives as rulers of Egypt.
Amenirdas I was the first such ruler. She became “Chief Prophetess of Amen” and “Mistress of Egypt”. Records from her reign have survived throughout Egypt. There are also statues, statuettes, etc. that have come down to us. She restored buildings and commissioned public works programmes.
Shepenoupet, her niece, succeeded her but there is confusion over names and details of this dynasty of female rulers, however. For example, it is known that a Shepenoupet was the last independent African ruler of Egypt, but we do not know which one. (It might have been Shepenoupet II).
After this final period of achievement, Egypt fell in 663 BC to the Assyrians. Shepenoupet (II) was deposed in 654 BC. After this, various other Caucasian peoples conquered Egypt. Egypt fell to the Persians in 525 BC, the Greeks 332 BC, the Romans in 30 BC and finally to the Arabs in 639 AD.
Pharaonic culture survived only in Kush. Meanwhile Egypt was gradually de-Africanised by the various conquests and occupations. This is why modern Egypt contains some Black people but is no longer a Black civilisation. After 639 AD, the land now belonged to the Arabs.